Tuesday, February 15, 2011

The variant text of וְאֶת כָּל כֵּלָיו

Summary: Considering how the MT differs from LXX and Sam regarding  וְאֶת כָּל כֵּלָיו. 

Post: This is a quick note. See the beginning of parashat Ki Tisa, in Shemot 31:8, according to our Masoretic Text, as well as the Peshitta:

7. The Tent of Meeting and the ark for the testimony, as well as the cover that [shall be] upon it, all the implements of the tent,ז. אֵת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְאֶת הָאָרֹן לָעֵדֻת וְאֶת הַכַּפֹּרֶת אֲשֶׁר עָלָיו וְאֵת כָּל כְּלֵי הָאֹהֶל:
8. the table and its implements, the pure menorah and all its implements, the altar of incense,ח. וְאֶת הַשֻּׁלְחָן וְאֶת כֵּלָיו וְאֶת הַמְּנֹרָה הַטְּהֹרָה וְאֶת כָּל כֵּלֶיהָ וְאֵת מִזְבַּח הַקְּטֹרֶת:
9. the altar for the burnt offering and all its implements, the washstand and its base,ט. וְאֶת מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה וְאֶת כָּל כֵּלָיו וְאֶת הַכִּיּוֹר וְאֶת כַּנּוֹ:

What does not fit the general pattern? It is the implements of the Shulchan, וְאֶת הַשֻּׁלְחָן וְאֶת כֵּלָיו. In general, kelav or keleha is preceded by ve'et kol. In this instance only, the word kol is not present.

Yet, if we compare two other sources, we find the word kol there. Thus, in the Septuagint, we have:
 7 the tabernacle of witness, and the ark of the covenant, and the propitiatory that is upon it, and the furniture of the tabernacle,
8 and the altars, and the table and all its furniture, 

9 and the pure candlestick and all its furniture, and the laver and its base, 
 7 τὴν σκηνὴν τοῦ μαρτυρίου καὶ τὴν κιβωτὸν τῆς διαθήκης καὶ τὸ ἱλαστήριον τὸ ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς καὶ τὴν διασκευὴν τῆς σκηνῆς 
8 καὶ τὰ θυσιαστήρια καὶ τὴν τράπεζαν καὶ πάντα τὰ σκεύη αὐτῆς καὶ τὴν λυχνίαν τὴν καθαρὰν καὶ πάντα τὰ σκεύη αὐτῆς 
9 καὶ τὸν λουτῆρα καὶ τὴν βάσιν αὐτοῦ 

They appear to have collapsed the mizback haketores and the mizbach ha'olah into simply "the altars", and changed the pasuk divisions. They also changed "and its furniture" following "the table" into "and all its furniture". Perhaps we could say that this is part of the contraction, since it might then encompass the implements of the various altars. Alternatively, this reflects an underlying original text. Alternatively, there is an urge to harmonize all the "and (all) its implements" such that the word "all" would be present. Lectio difficilior and all that jazz.

Furthermore, we have a parallel to a perek earlier, where "and all its implements" is stated about the Shulchan:

26. And you shall anoint with it the Tent of Meeting and the Ark of Testimony,כו. וּמָשַׁחְתָּ בוֹ אֶת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְאֵת אֲרוֹן הָעֵדֻת:
27. the table and all its implements, the menorah and its implements, the altar of incense,כז. וְאֶת הַשֻּׁלְחָן וְאֶת כָּל כֵּלָיו וְאֶת הַמְּנֹרָה וְאֶת כֵּלֶיהָ וְאֵת מִזְבַּח הַקְּטֹרֶת:
28. the altar of the burnt offering and all its implements, the washstand and its base.כח. וְאֶת מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה וְאֶת כָּל כֵּלָיו וְאֶת הַכִּיֹּר וְאֶת כַּנּוֹ:

which would then either be cause to legitimately think that the word kol should be there, or would be more cause to say lectio difficilior.

The Samaritan Pentateuch has as follows:

Not the other changes found in the Septuagint, but indeed the harmonization by insertion of כל. This is what I would have predicted.

Christian David Ginsberg lists a bunch of Jewish texts which have this word כל. And Minchat Shai writes:
אֶת הַשֻּׁלְחָן וְאֶת כֵּלָיו -- מטעים ביה אינשי דאומרים וְאֶת כָּל כֵּלָיו
that people who insert the word kol there are making an error.

I would agree, for the reason of lectio difficilior I mentioned above.

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