Some time today, someone came to this blog based on a search on this question. And I had an exchange about it some time ago with an anonymous commenter, so I thought that with birchat hachammah coming up I would bring it to the fore.
What is the diffrence between Chamah and Shemesh meaning when does the torah say one and when does the torah use the other? Any Mareh Makom or answer would be apprecialted.
an interesting question. I think you can divide it into two questions: what is the story in Biblical Hebrew, and what is the story in Babylonian Aramaic.
As far as I could tell with a quick search, Chama appears in about 3 places in Tanach, once in Iyyov (always strange language) and twice in Yeshaya. My first impression is that Shemesh occurs much more often, and is of a kind with Yareach. Meanwhile, Chama, where it occurs, would be with Levana. Maybe an arcane word, borrowed from the Aramaic?
In terms of Babylonian Aramaic, both Shimsha and Chamta occur. From memory, my impression is that Chama is more common (134 times vs 19 times). But perhaps we can make a differentiation in usage between sunlight and the sun itself? Not always, though.
I think both occur in both languages, with different distributions, and I don't think a derasha based on the difference between them would necessarily be correct.
But as you can clearly see, this is all very off the cuff.
SHKOOACH, I was told after asking around a Bit that the Malbim or Reb Hirsch may talk about it in there Dictionaries and the person told me a DRUSH about Levana and Yerach I cant remember it from someone that Impressed I forget who. and the Ramban clearly states that Hebrew has no words that mean the same thing without at least a Nuance off difference (I HAVE A SNEAKING SUSPICION YOU DISAGREE) so Hopefully somne can lead me in the right direction MAREH MOKOM Wise so PUK CHAZI Thanks for answering the question Anonymous
your sneaking suspicion is more than justified (though I've heard of those claims and believe that they held this); this was a matter of dispute between pashtanim such as Ramban and pashtanim like Ibn Ezra, who held of the principle of kefel lashon.
I would maintain this especially where the words in question appear in disparate time periods in Tanach. (Shemesh seeming to appear early, in early books and in place names.)
Rav Hirsch, IMHO, does have one or two aspects of accuracy, but is mostly nonsense - a modern theory which I don't think is born out.
Clark's Etymological Dictionary of Biblical Hebrew, based of Rav Shamshon ben Refael Hirsch, has on page 265 an entry for shemesh: serve: use as intended explanation/commentary: 1) serving (refers to Devarim 4:19 and Tehillim 19:5). 2) sun, serving God's purpose (refers to Bereshit 19:23 and Shemot 32:25). 3) window, opening to the sun (refers to Yeshaya 54:12). cognate meaning: serve. (phonetic cognates שמץ, lack will.)
on page 82, Chamam:
glow, project extreme heat. explanation/commentary: 1) being glowing hot (refers to Shemot 16:21). 2) exhibiting sexual heat (refers to Bereishit 6:10 and Bereishit 9:27). 3) Glowing anger (Bereishit 27:44 and 49:7). 4) sun (Tehillim 19:7). 5) sun-idol (Vayikra 26:30).