First middah: From a Ribbuy, how so?
The ribbuy utilized three terms. את, גם, אף.
|א וַה פָּקַד אֶת-שָׂרָה, כַּאֲשֶׁר אָמָר; וַיַּעַשׂ ה לְשָׂרָה, כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֵּר.||1 And the LORD remembered Sarah as He had said, and the LORD did unto Sarah as He had spoken.|
|ו וַתֹּאמֶר שָׂרָה--צְחֹק, עָשָׂה לִי אֱלֹהִים: כָּל-הַשֹּׁמֵעַ, יִצְחַק-לִי.||6 And Sarah said: 'God hath made laughter for me; every one that heareth will laugh on account of me.'|
In a similar vein, you say (Mishlei 17):
|כד אֶת-פְּנֵי מֵבִין חָכְמָה; וְעֵינֵי כְסִיל, בִּקְצֵה-אָרֶץ.||24 Wisdom is before him that hath understanding; but the eyes of a fool are in the ends of the earth.|
|כה עֹז-וְהָדָר לְבוּשָׁהּ; וַתִּשְׂחַק, לְיוֹם אַחֲרוֹן.||25 Strength and dignity are her clothing; and she laugheth at the time to come.|
את as the marker of the object, as opposed to subject. The function of את in other situations.
What is the function of את in the second pasuk?
(Midrashic hint: only Eve was created from Adam's rib/tail/back)
What is the function of את in Bereishit 22:3?
גם: how does it include?
similarly, you say:
Discussion: This is halachic or aggadic? How exactly is the גם functioning? How exactly is שְׁנֵיהֶם now functioning?
Before proceeding, one of my favorite גםs. Shemot 7:
(Midrash: Pharoah's wife, students of magicians.) What does this show about the role of גם?
Answer: of a like kind to that to which it is joined.
How does this fit into the mood of the perek?
אף to include, how?
II Kings 2:
And so it states
What does the English expression "take up the mantle" mean?
What is the theme of this perek?
What is the import of two tzadikim vs. one? Suggestion: being solitary - now have to stand as own man, as opposed to being sidekick.
Note how both אף and the "double portion" connote extra.
So too you find 8 miracles by Eliyahu and 16 by Elisha.
Similarly, in Iyyov 37: (Note: Elihu's speech)
|יא אַף-בְּרִי, יַטְרִיחַ עָב; יָפִיץ, עֲנַן אוֹרוֹ.||11 Yea, He ladeth the thick cloud with moister, He spreadeth abroad the cloud of His lightning;|
(A perush in parentheses: The meaning of this midda - that these three words - אף, גם, את. come always to include. And within this midrashic method is that every extra word or letter comes to include, except that the Tanna only mentioned something which is constant, since these three words include in every place that they are written. Meanwhile, the other words only include when they are extra. And the inclusion in all places is of the subject by which it is written. And this is of the 13 hermenutical methods of the matter which is learnt from its subject matter. and not of something which is not of its subject matter. And the rest of the words explaining the brayta in this method and in all of the remaining methods, with many examples, all is made clear at length in my sefer Midrash Tanaim. דרוש משם. And it requires investigation, for we do not find further that the word אף comes to include.)