First I will note the obvious parallels, in which Daniel echoes Miketz. Then I intend to turn around and show how Chazal, noting these parallels, composed midrashim borrowing in the opposite direction, from sefer Daniel to the narrative in Miketz.
The obvious parallels, in which sefer Daniel echoes parshas Miketz, are:
1) In Daniel 1, echoing the cows in Pharaoh's dream:
3) Nevuchadnetzar's spirit was troubled, just as by Pharaoh we see:
4) The response of Nevuchnetzar is to summon all his wise men, his chartumim, just as we see in the pasuk I just cited about Pharaoh. Thus, in
6) Yosef is mentioned by one of Pharaoh's ministers as one able to interpret dreams -- he is a Hebrew of low station:
and Arioch, the captain of the guard, gives Daniel a similar introduction:
sar hatabachim. And that was indeed Arioch's position as well, in sefer Daniel:
|כח הוּא הַדָּבָר, אֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתִּי אֶל-פַּרְעֹה: אֲשֶׁר הָאֱלֹהִים עֹשֶׂה, הֶרְאָה אֶת-פַּרְעֹה.||28 That is the thing which I spoke unto Pharaoh: what God is about to do He hath shown unto Pharaoh.|
As noted, once Chazal saw these obvious parallels in one direction, they saw fit to borrow heavily in the other direction, using Daniel material to embellish the Miketz narrative. Of course, many of the fine points can be deduced locally from pesukim in Miketz, but the overall scheme of the interpretation is to transfer Daniel material.
This is readily apparent when we compare material from a midrashic work such as Sefer haYashar with the second perek on Daniel. Follow the links and read it, and see what I mean, in terms of language, and in terms of parallels.
Thus, going through Sefer HaYashar, we find (as additions to the Biblical text, which find parallels in sefer Daniel):
1) On page 140, sentence 2: "and dreamed dreams" Compare Daniel 2:1.
2) sentence 7: They ask the king to relate the dreams to them. In this instance, the king complies. Compare Daniel 2:4
3) sentence 8: In their reply: "Oh king, live forever." Compare Daniel 2:4, מַלְכָּא לְעָלְמִין חֱיִי
4) sentence 11: "What is this thing that you have spoken to me? Surely you have uttered falsehood and spoken lies; therefore, now give the proper intepretation of my dreams, that you may not die." Compare Daniel 2:5 for the punishment -- הֵן לָא תְהוֹדְעוּנַּנִי, חֶלְמָא וּפִשְׁרֵהּ, הַדָּמִין תִּתְעַבְדוּן, וּבָתֵּיכוֹן נְוָלִי יִתְּשָׂמוּן. And compare Daniel 2:9 -- "that, if ye make not known unto me the dream, there is but one law for you; and ye have agreed together to speak before me lying and corrupt words, till the time be changed; only tell me the dream, and I shall know that ye can declare unto me the interpretation thereof.' "
5) sentences 13-16 -- the expansion of seeking someone to interpret it.
sentence 26-28: the king commands all the wise men in Egypt be slain, as punishment for not providing him with the correct interpretation. Compare Daniel 2:12-13: "For this cause the king was angry and very furious, and commanded to destroy all the wise men of Babylon. So the decree went forth, and the wise men were to be slain; and they sought Daniel and his companions to be slain."
6) sentences 46-48: ascending the steps to the throne in terms of as many languages one could speak. This finds local purchase in Miketz as:
|מ אַתָּה תִּהְיֶה עַל-בֵּיתִי, וְעַל-פִּיךָ יִשַּׁק כָּל-עַמִּי; רַק הַכִּסֵּא, אֶגְדַּל מִמֶּךָּ.||40 Thou shalt be over my house, and according unto thy word shall all my people be ruled; only in the throne will I be greater than thou.'|
deliberate -- that Pharaoh, as a means of testing Yosef, actually deliberately modified the dream. Yosef was able to tell Pharaoh his correct dream, and then proceeded to explain it. And this is how Pharaoh knew up front that Yosef's interpretation was the correct one.
There is that local feature, of the divergence in Pharaoh's retelling, for sure. However, on the macro scale, there is the parallel to Daniel 2:5-6 and elsewhere, where the king refuses to tell them the actual contents of the dream, as a means of testing if they are legitimate.
There may be other features I have missed. And I have not taken pains to see exactly which of these parallels in sefer haYashar are found in earlier midrashim, which might be something important to do, given what we saw last week in terms of Zuleika, Potiphar's wife. Still, I think this post demonstrates the parallels going in both directions. And indeed, there are other instances of this at play in Biblical text and then midrash, which beEzrat Hashem and bli neder I will get to elaborate in its proper place.